WHY REFERENCE/CITE? 5 HOW TO REFERENCE 5 PARAPHRASING 5 IN-TEXT REFERENCES 5 AUTHOR PROMINENT 5 INFORMATION PROMINENT 6 WHAT IS PLAGIARISM? 6 USE OF ITALICS 6 USE OF QUOTATION MARKS 6 QUOTATIONS OF 40 OR MORE WORDS 7 QUOTE WITHIN A QUOTE
ALC An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre Academic Communication An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style (6th edition), an Author-Date System based on American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Maintained by Academic Learning Services Unit Edition 2013 Published by CQUniversity Australia COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA WARNING This Material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of CQUniversity pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice. CQUniversity CRICOS Codes: 00219C – Qld; 01315F – NSW; 01624D – Vic Table of Contents Why reference/cite? 5 How to reference 5 Paraphrasing 5 In-text references 5 Author prominent 5 Information prominent 6 What is plagiarism? 6 Use of italics 6 Use of quotation marks 6 Quotations of 40 or more words 7 Quote within a quote 7 Capitalisation 7 Quoting incorrect spelling, punctuation or grammar from an original source 8 Page numbers 8 Quoting online material that has no page numbers 8 Use of ‘et al.’ 8 Use of city, state, country location information 8 Difference between a reference list and a bibliography 9 Formatting your reference list 9 Referencing a source not covered by the APA manual 9 Journal articles and periodicals 10 Journal article 10 A journal article with a DOI 10 Online journal article from a database with no DOI 11 Issue numbers 11 Using URL references 11 Unpublished sources 12 Appendices 12 When to use numbers expressed in words 12 When to use numbers expressed as numerals 12 APA formatting 12 BOOKS 14 JOURNALS 28 REPORTS 33 CONFERENCE PAPERS 35 UNIVERSITY MATERIALS 36 GOVERNMENT & LEGISLATION 39 ELECTRONIC SOURCES 44 SPECIALISED SOURCES 48 REFERENCES 57 APPENDIX A—TABLE FORMAT 60 APPENDIX B—FIGURE FORMAT 62 INDEX 63 5 Why reference/cite? References must be provided whenever you use someone else’s opinions, theories, data or organisation of material. You need to reference information from books, articles, DVDs, the World Wide Web, other print or electronic sources and personal communications. A reference is required if you: quote (use someone else’s exact words) copy (use figures, tables or structure) paraphrase (convert someone else’s ideas into your own words) summarise (give a brief account of someone else’s ideas). How to reference There are two parts to the APA system of referencing: 1. The author and the date are referred to in the text or main body of your writing (called in-text referencing or citing). 2. All of the resources referred to in the body of the writing are included in the reference list at the end of the assignment. All information is included in this list: author, date, title of publication, and publication and/or retrieval information. When you reference sources of information in the text of your assignment—regardless of whether you quote, paraphrase or summarise—you should include: the author’s surname (family name) the year of publication page numbers when directly quoting or closely paraphrasing an author’s words correct punctuation and spacing. Your reference list includes full details of all sources you have referred to in the assignment in alphabetical order. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is putting someone else’s ideas into your own words.
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