Phenomenological research is an inductive descriptive approach used to describe an experience as it is lived by an individual ,such as the experience of chronic pain. Phenomenologist are among those whoare likely to delay literature review until after data collection and intitial analysis have been completed Munhall 2012 These researchers will review the literature in a later stages of the analysis and as they interpret the findings in a larger context of theoretical and empirical knowledge
Ground theory research is an inductive research technique used to formulate ,test and refine a theory about a particular phenomenon .Grounded theory was describe by Glaser and Strauss 1967 in their development of a theory about grieving
Grounded theory researchers include a minimal review of relevant studies at the beginning of the research process .This review is merely a means of making the researcher aware of what studies have been conducted and that research problem exists Corbin &Strauss2008 but the information from these studies is not used to direct data collection or theory development for current study the researcher uses the literature primary to explain ,support and extend the theory generated in the study .Wuerst 2012
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Ethnographic research was developed by the discipline of anthropology for investigating cultures through an in depth study of members of the culture. Health practice vary among cultures and these practices need to be recognized in delivery care to patients ,families and communities the difference ethnographic deal with culture practice in health care and data collection is involve The ethnographic research is similar to that of quantitative research .In early ethnographies of unexplored group of people in distant location culture specific literature was not available to review prior to data collection .Theoretical and philosophical literature ,however was and continues to be used to provide a framework or perspective through which researchers approach data collection The researcher problem for ethnography is based on a review of literature that identifies how little is known about the culture of interest .The review also informs the research process by general understanding of cultural characteristic to be examined . Ethnographers return to literature during analysis and interpretation of data to expand a readers understanding of the culture
The differenceis phenomenologist collect data just like ethnographic and are similar in collecting data ground theory is not used to direct data collection.
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